Kiowa press – Plains News Sat, 19 Nov 2022 20:37:37 +0000 en-US hourly 1 Kiowa press – Plains News 32 32 Hey, new parents – go ahead and “spoil” this baby! | Kiowa County Press Thu, 17 Nov 2022 12:10:57 +0000

How to soothe a crying baby? Try everything. Tripod/Getty Images

Amy Root, West Virginia University

When a baby cries, parents often wonder whether to soothe the baby or let him calm down. If they respond to every sob, won’t the baby cry more? Isn’t that spoiling the baby?

I hear these questions a lot because a teacher of child development and family sciences. The notion of spoiling a baby remains common in the United States, despite the evidence that infants who have parents who respond to their needs are better able to calm down later in life.

Many of the students I teach say their parents resisted soothing their crying and they did fine. Of course there is individual differences in early childhood development. There’s no “unique sizefor parenthood.

That said, for decades developmental scientists have studied emotional regulation in children and the caregiver-infant bond. There is an answer to the common question of whether it is better to comfort a crying baby or let him learn to calm down. Let me explain…

Emotional regulation in infancy

Infants are born with a remarkable number of abilities. In effect, Studies show that babies seem “know” much more about the world we live and grow up in than previously believed. For example, infants have an understanding of numbers, object permanence and even morality.

However, the abilities of infants are still immature. They rely on their caregivers to hone these skills, much like other young mammals.

And one thing newborn babies can’t do is regulate one’s own distress – if this distress comes from feeling cold, hunger, pain or other discomfort. This ability does not develop until about 4 months of age. Infants therefore need the help of their parents to calm themselves down.

As crying is one of infants’ first means of communication their needs to caregivers and others, It’s imperative for the infant-parent bond that caregivers respond to their baby cries.

In addition, Studies show that infant crying arouses in others an apparent psychological need to soothe their distress. As such, infant cries serve a fundamental purpose for both infant and caregiver.

Gay fathers trying to calm a crying newborn.  The group is lying on a bed with a large window and sunlight in the background.
Caregivers who meet the needs of the infant show babies that they are worthy of love and care. Willie B. Thomas/Getty Images

Importantly, infants also learn from the responsiveness of their caregivers how it feels to calm down. This feeling is similar to the internal changes that adults and older children experience when they regulate their emotions, i.e. their heart rate slows down and they feel comfortable. This repeated experiment gives infants new life skills: Longitudinal research indicates that infants whose caregivers respond to their distress are better able to regulate emotions and behavior as they age.

For babies, self-soothing probably means sucking on a pacifier or a fist. Later in life, these fundamental infant soothing skills learned in response to parental care develop into more adult habits for regulate distresslike counting to 10 or taking deep breaths.

Relationship between caregiver and infant

Parental reactivity to infant crying also affects the infant-caregiver relationship. Caregivers provide infants with early information about the predictability of the social world, the reliability of others, and their own worth.

This lays the foundation for the quality of the lifetime relationship between caregiver and child. When infants are soothed in times of distress, they learn that their caregiver is trustworthy and dependable. They also learn that they are worthy caring and loving relationships, which positively influences their future relationships.

Caregiver responsiveness is also associated with a cascade of well documented results in infants, children and adolescents, including Cognitive functioning, language development, self esteem and future sensitivity to infant needs.

The lack of responsiveness of caregivers, on the other hand, is related to later behavioral difficulties and development challenges. Studies show that neglected children may struggle to bond with peers and deal with rejection.

Although a recent study reported that these adverse effects may not apply at night – as in, when parents let babies “cry” to teach them to sleep – the major consensus in the literature is that before 4 months of age, babies should not be left to cry. I recommend no earlier than 6 months due to bond formation, and strongly encourage caregivers to consider their child’s individual abilities. Indeed, some children are able to self-regulate better than others. Also there are alternative means to help babies learn to self-soothe at night, including responding to infant distress.

Fortunately, caregivers are biologically ready to take care of their babies. Research on animals and humans shows that there are the hormones that drive caregiving.

Go ahead, ‘spoil’ this baby

My best advice, based on the scientific literature, is that parents should respond quickly and consistently to baby crying until at least 6 months of age.

But take a pragmatic approach.

Caregivers know the idiosyncrasies of their infants: some may be more placid, while others are more excitable. Similarly, culture determines the goals caregivers set for themselves and their children. Thus, responsiveness and adaptive caregiver-infant relationships will be different for different families. Parents should act accordingly. adapting their responsiveness their baby’s needs and their cultural context.

Whichever way you look at it, responding to a baby’s every cry is not “spoiling” the baby. Instead, soothing a crying baby provides the baby with the tools he will use to calm himself down in the future.

The conversation

Amy Rootprofessor of applied human sciences, West Virginia University

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American Legion Post 125 Hosts Annual Veterans Day Dinner | Kiowa County Press Sun, 13 Nov 2022 16:54:42 +0000

American Legion Post #125 held its annual meeting and dinner at the Kiowa County Community Building on Eads Veterans Day, Nov. 11.

Commander Dan Richards opened the meeting after dinner. The minutes of the previous meeting and the financial report were submitted and approved by the Legion members.

There were several guest speakers for the evening. District Commander Richard Devlin was present and gave a short presentation. The next speaker was Gary Harbert, Veterans Services Officer at Lamar, who gave a presentation on veterans benefits and encouraged all veterans to enroll in the Veterans Administration Clinic at Lamar. .

Cindy McLoud of the Kiowa County Economic Development Foundation spoke next and provided an update on a grant received for the renovation of the Legion Hall building. Construction is expected to begin in the spring.

Close-up view of signage on American Legion Hall in Eads – (c) Sorensen

Carole Spady and Michelle Nelson were on hand to present three Quilts of Valor to local veterans Walter Bates, Dwight Lessenden and Richard Glover.

PICT Quilts of Valor recipients Walter Bates, Dwight Lessenden and Richard Glover - Roland Sorensen

Quilts of Valor recipients Walter Bates, Dwight Lessenden and Richard Glover – Photo courtesy Roland Sorensen

After the introductions, current leaders Dan Richards, Roland Sorensen and Areta Blooding-Laird were re-elected for the coming year and the meeting was adjourned.

Curious Kids: What Makes Someone Indigenous? | Kiowa County Press Sat, 12 Nov 2022 12:27:29 +0000

Participants in the Indigenous Peoples of the Americas Parade in New York, October 15, 2022. Alexi Rosenfeld/Getty Images

Torivio Fodder, University of Arizona

curious children is a series for children of all ages. If you have a question you’d like an expert to answer, send it to

What makes a person indigenous? – Artie, 9, Astoria, New York

“In 1492, Christopher Columbus sailed the blue ocean.”

You may have heard that in school. The rhyme makes it easier to remember that 1492 was the year an Italian explorer named Christopher Columbus from Spain and landed in a chain of islands near modern Florida called the “West Indies”.

Europeans called the huge landmass we know today as North and South America the “New World” because, before the very end of the 15th century, no one on the eastern side of the Atlantic Ocean even knew it existed. A few Viking explorers had reached the Americas hundreds of years earlier, but little is known on their visits.

From the perspective of Europeans, Christopher Columbus had discovered something new. But for millions of natives, or natives, who already lived there, the “New World” was not new at all.

Connected instead

In the most basic terms, the fact that a person or a group of people is indigenous amounts to where their ancestors lived and how long they lived there.

People are considered indigenous to a certain place when their ancestors have existed and thrived there since time immemorial – basically, for longer than anyone can remember, or before people began to retain written historical records.

Indigenous peoples are the original inhabitants of a certain region. Their villages and territories were the first to be established in a particular place and existed long before modern cities, states or countries existed.

In 2007, the United Nations adopted the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples to help ensure the survival, dignity and well-being of Indigenous peoples around the world.

Cultural identity

There is an estimate 476 million Indigenous people in about 5,000 indigenous groups around the world. They live in almost every corner of the globe, including the frozen Arctic in northern canada and Alaskathe United States plainsthe mountains and rainforests of Latin Americathe pacific ocean islandsand throughout Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia, New Zealand and just about anywhere else people live – including major cities.

Each of these unique groups has deep historical ties to a particular part of the world. And their experiences have produced so many unique cultures.

Where you live – especially if your family has lived there for centuries – can have a huge impact on your lifestyle. It shapes things like the type of house you live in, the food you eat, the way you cook, and even things like how and who you worship in your religion.

For example, my father’s Aboriginal ancestry comes from Comanche, Kiowa and Cherokee tribes. The Comanches traveled widely, across a vast expanse of land from Canada in the north to the jungles of South America.

They learned to follow the migration of buffalo, which was their main source of food. And they have developed techniques to facilitate movement, such as the creation of mobile shelters called tepees which could be easily installed, disassembled and transported from place to place.

My mother grew up in an aboriginal community known as Taos Pueblo. The people of Taos Pueblo stayed year-round in the same region of northern New Mexico, home to vast mountain ranges and rushing rivers. Since the people of Taos Pueblo didn’t have to move around as much, they constructed large buildings from adobeor fired mud bricks, which were several stories high and could not be moved.

Adobe houses with mountains in the background
Taos Pueblo in Taos, New Mexico is a vibrant Native American community that has been designated both a UNESCO World Heritage Site and a National Historic Landmark. Wolfgang Kaehler/LightRocket via Getty Images

Although being indigenous is a matter of ancestry and place, different indigenous groups have their own cultures, traditions, languages ​​and religions, just as these things can differ from country to country, state to state. another or even from one city to another today.

political identity

Today, being indigenous does not necessarily mean that your ancestors lived in the same place where you live today. In fact, throughout history, many Aboriginal groups have been removed from their traditional homeland and forced to live elsewhere.

Most of the indigenous groups who were driven from their lands did not want to leave. But settlers from elsewhere saw the lands and resources where Indigenous peoples lived and wanted them for their own country. They often used military force forcing indigenous peoples to leave their homes.

Interior Secretary Deb Haaland speaks during a press conference, April 23, 2021.
Interior Secretary Deb Haaland, a Laguna Pueblo member, is the first Native American to serve as U.S. cabinet secretary. She oversees millions of acres of public lands, as well as the nation’s fiduciary responsibility to American Indians and Alaska Natives. AP Photo/Evan Vucci

Many of these groups exist today as a type of government known as an Aboriginal tribe or nation. There is at least 574 tribes in the United States alone. Like any other government, tribal governments make laws about how to live together peacefully, decide what it means to be a good citizen, and plan for the future.

Together, these laws form a political community – an understanding of how all members of an Indigenous nation agree to live and treat each other as part of the same Indigenous community.

So, although being indigenous has always been very closely linked to a place, today it is also a question of cultural and political identity. It helps shape a person’s connection to their community and allows them to understand their place in history.

Hello, curious little ones! Do you have a question you would like an expert to answer? Have an adult send your question to Please let us know your name, age and the city where you live.

And since curiosity has no age – adults, let us know your questions too. We cannot answer all questions, but we will do our best.

The conversation

Torivio FodderIndigenous Governance Program Manager and Professor of Practice, University of Arizona

This article is republished from The conversation under Creative Commons license. Read it original article.

Indigenous languages ​​make their way into public schools | Kiowa County Press Mon, 07 Nov 2022 12:48:01 +0000

James Gensaw, a Yurok language teacher at a high school in far northern California, goes over a few words with a student. Mneesha Gellman, Author provided

Mneesha Gellman, Emerson College

Every time November rolled around, James Gensaw, a Yurok language teacher at a high school in far northern California, received a request from a school administrator. They always asked him to bring students from the Native American Club, which he advises, to demonstrate Yurok dancing on the high school quad at lunchtime.

“On the one hand, it was nice that the school wanted to share our culture with us,” Gensaw told me in an interview. “On the other hand, it wasn’t always respectful. Some kids made fun of the Native American dancers, imitating battle cries and shouting ‘chief’.”

“Media would be invited to come and cover the dance as part of their Thanksgiving coverage, and it felt like we were a show,” he continued. “Other cultural groups and issues were sometimes presented at school assemblies, in the gymnasium, where teachers monitored student behavior. I thought, why didn’t we have this? We needed more of respect to share our culture.” James Gensaw’s work in public high schools in California as a Yurok language teacher and mentor to Native American students is part of a consideration for equity and justice in schools.

Yurok language in schools

Tribal officials say Gensaw is one of 16 advanced-level Yurok language keepers alive today. A registered member of the Yurok tribe, Gensaw is also part of the tribe Yurok language programwhich is at the forefront of efforts to keep the Yurok language alive.

Today, the Yurok language is offered as an elective at four high schools in far northern California. The courses meet the language instruction requirements for admission to the University of California and California State University systems.

Yurok language classes are also offered at local Head Start preschool programs as well as some K-8 schools when teachers are available, and at College of the Redwoods, the regional community college. To date, eight high school students have received California’s Biliteracy State Seal in Yuroka prestigious achievement that signifies commitment and proficiency in the language.

When I started researching the effects of Yurok language access on young people in 2016, there were about 12 advanced level speakers, according to the Yurok Language Curriculum. The 16 advanced level speakers in 2022 represent a growing speaker base and they are something to celebrate. Despite colonization and attempts to eradicate the yurok language by interrupting the transfer of the language from parents to their children, the Yurok speakers are still there.

Throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, residential schools in the United States functioned as spaces for what I call “culturecide” – the killing of culture – in my latest book, “The Politics of Indigenous Languages ​​in Schools: Cultural Survival in Mexico and the United States. “In the United States and Mexico, students were often forced to attend schools where they were beaten for speaking indigenous languages. Today, new generations are encouraged to enroll to study the same language. Many their grandparents and great-grandparents were forced to forget.

language as resistance

The Yurok Tribe made the decision years ago to prioritize increasing the number of Yurok speakers and as part of that, teaching the Yurok to anyone who wanted to learn. They have a lot Online resources which are open to everyone. Victoria Carlson is the Yurok Language Program Manager and language keeper herself. She teaches Yurok to her children as a first language and travels great distances to teach the language in schools in Humboldt and Del Norte counties.

“When we speak yurok, we say we’re still here,” Carson said in an interview with me, echoing a sentiment many yurok students have passed on to me as well. “Speaking our language is a form of resistance to everything that has been done to our people.”

Students in Mr. Gensaw’s classes are predominantly, but not exclusively, Native American. Through my research, I learned that there are white students who enroll out of interest or because nothing else fits into their schedule. There are Asian American students who want Hmong or Mandarin as a language option, but they take Yurok because it is the most unique language choice available. And there are Latinx students who are already bilingual in English and Spanish and want to challenge themselves linguistically.

In my book and related posts, I document how access to Indigenous languages ​​in school benefits different groups of students in various ways. Heritage speakers – those whose family members speak the language – shine in the classroom as people with authority over content, which many Native American students struggle with in other classes. White students have their eyes open to An Aboriginal presence that is sorely lacking when studying the Gold Rush, Spanish missionaries in California, or other standard K-12 education subjects that are taught from a colonization perspective. And students from non-heritage minorities report increased interest in their own identity. They often go to elders to learn some of their own family languages ​​after being inspired that such knowledge is worth being proud of.

Bringing languages ​​like Yurok to schools that are still, as historian Donald Yacovone points out, dominated by white supremacist content, does not in itself negate the effects of colonization. Get rid of programs that teach Doctrine of Discovery – the idea that the colonizers “discovered” the Americas and had a legal right there – is a long process. But placing Native American languages ​​in public schools both affirms the validity of Native cultural knowledge and also affirms the contemporary existence of indigenous peoples at a time. It’s a place to start.

One step after another

In my experience as a researcher on education policy and democracy, I have found that bring more culturally diverse lessons to school is something that better prepares young people to learn how to interact in healthy ways with people who are different from themselves.

Gensaw, the Yurok language teacher, is at the forefront of this. One year, when asked again if he could get the students dancing around Thanksgiving, he said yes, but not on the quad. He asked for a school meeting space where student behavior could be monitored. The school said yes and the students danced without being belittled by their peers. These steps are just the beginning of what it takes to undo the effects of colonization.

The conversation

Mneesha Gellmanassociate professor of political science, Emerson College

This article is republished from The conversation under Creative Commons license. Read it original article.

What are the stakes of this election day | Kiowa County Press Sun, 06 Nov 2022 14:36:47 +0000

People volunteer at an Alaska Native polling place on November 2, 2022 in Anchorage. Spencer Platt/Getty Images

Amy Lieberman, The conversation

As Election Day approaches, uncertainty and concern over potential chaos – from violence at polling stations to candidates refusing to accept defeat – keep going up.

Problems that have historically plagued the American electoral and political system — like voter intimidation — crop up before midterms. But so do the less familiar issues, like how once mundane state electoral positions are becoming opportunities for political activism.

Here are seven key issues affecting the midterm elections, drawn from stories in The Conversation archives.

An elderly white man in a dark blue suit stands next to two American flags and a third very large flag on a blue background.  A black man in a suit stands on the other side of the American flag.
President Joe Biden spoke on November 2, 2022, warning of the need to preserve and protect democracy. Kent Nishimura/Los Angeles Times via Getty Images

1. Who votes

Voter turnout in midterm elections is generally low – although some experts say that there could be a strong turnout this year. But the question of who actually goes to the polls will also be critical, as the races in the main swing states tighten.

Younger voters are much less likely to vote midterm than older people, in contrast to their higher turnout rates in presidential elections, according to a government researcher from American University Jan Leighley wrote. Younger voters are also more likely to identify as Democrats.

“So if young voters are underrepresented in the November 2022 election, more Republicans could be elected, along with candidates less likely to reflect the views of young citizens on key issues,” he added. Leighley wrote.

This year, meanwhile, a record number of Latinos are also expected to go to the polls. In 2020, most Latinos voted for President Joe Biden – but a growing number of Latino voters are also supporting GOP candidates, including former President Donald Trump, wrote University of Tennessee Social Work learned Mary Lehman outfit.

One reason is that Latino voters have different backgrounds, values ​​and priorities. And not all would be turned off by the Republican candidates’ restrictive immigration policy.

“Immigration policies only affect a subset of Latinos, notably Mexicans, followed by Salvadorans, Guatemalans and Hondurans,” Lehman Held explained.

2. What voters want

It’s the economy, fool like the famous The 1992 political adage about voters’ primary concern goes.

Rampant inflation evaluates the best voters concerns this year, even though neither political party has been particularly effective in tackling the problem and bringing inflation down, according to a Texas State University finance expert William Chittenden wrote.

There has been a flurry of political activism surrounding the Supreme Court’s decision to overturn Roe vs. Wade in June 2022, reversing the federal right to abortion. But just four months later, men and women are both saying abortion politics aren’t getting them to the polls, according to social scientists at Harvard Kennedy School and Northwestern University. Matthew A. Baum, Alauna Safarpour, Jonathan Schulman and Kristin Lunz Trujillo.

“The Supreme Court’s Dobbs v. Jackson decision may have initially mobilized some voters in June and July, particularly women, but its effects appear to have waned when we asked Americans about their intentions to vote again in August. and October”, they wrote.

3. Elections aren’t what they used to be

Gone are the days when election administrators were seen as low-key, doing essential — but not flashy — work like organizing voter lists, staffing polling stations and tabulating results. elections.

General distrust of elections is high in the United States after the 2020 election – and former President Trump’s refusal to accept defeat. It’s a new era in politics, where it’s not necessarily a given that “elections are held, votes are counted, winners are declared, and democracy is evolving,” Arizona State University wrote. Thomas Reillypublic governance specialist and former state elections official.

A complicating factor is that the United States is the only democracy that elects many of its election officials, and high-ranking members of the Republican or Democratic parties typically oversee state-level elections.

“This partisan system has largely worked until now because, in essence, each party controlled the other party’s ability to influence election results. As long as states were politically diverse, members of both major parties acted good faith, and this model worked – albeit imperfectly,” writes Reilly.

But there is already evidence that newly created and highly partisan election officials and election observers are planning to disrupt the election, which could diminish public confidence in this essential democratic institution and weaken democracy itself. And a large number of candidates for national election administration positions are election deniers. If they win, Reilly wrote, it will further erode public confidence in the integrity of the election.

A large white sign says
Young people walk past a voting information board on the Emory University campus in Atlanta on October 14, 2022. Elijah Nouvelage/AFP via Getty Images

4. Black voters risk being intimidated

Amid warnings from the Department of Homeland Security about political violence on Election Day – that University of Maryland, Baltimore County security researcher Richard Fornon recently explored – there is an increased risk that polling stations will become another site of political violence.

The threat reminds long-standing efforts by white supremacists for intimidate and threaten black voters.

Georgia is a place with a long history of voter intimidation that rolls out electoral reform laws that actually make it harder for voters — especially people of color — to vote. Part of this new law, called SB 202, removes certain ballot drop boxes, which people of color primarily use. It comes as black voters grow in numbers and power in Georgia — and the tightened voting rules are reminiscent of the 1940s and other times when white conservatives clamped down on the franchise in response to rising political power. Black.

“The almost immediate passage of new election laws at a time of rising black political power suggests the persistence of a white backlash in Georgia,” wrote Emory University political scientist Richard Doner.

Editor’s note: This story is a summary of articles from The Conversation archives.

The conversation

Amy LiebermanPolitics + Society Editor, The conversation

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2022-10-31 | Press release | Redbed Plains Wind Farm Celebrates Five Years of Renewable Power Generation in Grady County Mon, 31 Oct 2022 16:09:27 +0000

The Redbed Plains Wind Farm has been safely providing renewable energy since 2017, powering the equivalent of more than 22,000 average Oklahoma homes each year.

Tuttle, Oklahoma, Oct. 31, 2022 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) — EDP Renewables North America (EDPR NA) and Connor, Clark & ​​Lunn Infrastructure (CC&L infrastructure) together commemorate the fifth anniversary of the Redbed Plains Wind Farm located southwest of Oklahoma City. The 99 megawatt (MW) wind farm represents an estimated capital investment of approximately $158 million and generates enough energy to power the equivalent of more than 22,000 average Oklahoma homes each year. The project has provided significant economic and environmental benefits for Grady County and throughout Oklahoma.

During construction, Redbed Plains created 114 full-time equivalent jobs and currently employs nine permanent team members who operate and perform regular site maintenance. Redbed Plains also contributed approximately $8 million in expenses within 50 miles of the project due to project development. In addition to local investments, the project has paid more than $2.2 million to landowners through land lease payments and paid $5.8 million to local governments, improving schools, roads, infrastructure and other essential services. Redbed Plains also saves more than 176 million gallons of water each year, the amount needed for conventional generation sources to produce the same amount of capacity as the wind farm.

“EDPR NA is proud of its close relationship with the community surrounding the Redbed Plains Wind Farm and its safe operation and delivery of clean, cost-effective energy, ” Larry Martin, Operations Manager – Redbed Plains Wind Farm said. “This fifth anniversary is just the start of a lasting relationship with our supportive neighbors, and on behalf of EDP Renewables, Connor, Clark & ​​Lunn Infrastructure and Redbed Plains, we look forward to being a contributing member of the community for years to come.”

EDPR NA and CC&L Infrastructure operate Redbed Plains in a long-term partnership representing over 560 MW of renewable energy generation. CC&L Infrastructure acquired its initial stake in the portfolio in 2020 and has since provided strategic oversight while EDPR NA has continued to operate the project.

“We are delighted to be working with EDPR NA on the safe and successful operation of Redbed Plains,”” said Matt O’Brien, President of CC&L Infrastructure. “As long-term investors, we believe in responsible investments and projects that support local communities while creating value for customers, employees and investors. We plan to leverage our partnership’s extensive experience in managing renewable energy projects to safely and efficiently contribute to Oklahoma’s long-term clean energy supply.”

EDPR NA is a renewable energy leader in Oklahoma, operating six wind power projects totaling 623 MW. In addition to Redbed Plains, EDPR NA’s other projects are the 100 MW Arbuckle Mountain Wind Farm in Murray County and the four-phase 423 MW Blue Canyon Wind Farm in Caddo, Comanche and Kiowa counties. These projects represent an estimated $1.2 billion in capital investment and are driving economic growth and development in rural communities across the state.

Multimedia resources include:

About EDP Renewables North America

EDP ​​Renewables North America LLC (EDPR NA), its affiliates and subsidiaries develop, build, own and operate wind farms and solar farms throughout North America. Headquartered in Houston, Texas, with 58 wind farms, nine solar farms and eight regional offices across North America, EDPR NA has developed over 8,800 megawatts (MW) and operates over 8,200 MW of power projects. large-scale onshore renewable energy. With over 950 employees, EDPR NA’s highly skilled team has a proven ability to execute projects across the continent.

For more information, visit

About EDP Renewables

EDPR NA is a wholly-owned subsidiary of EDP Renewables (Euronext: EDPR), a world leader in the renewable energy sector. EDPR is the fourth largest producer of renewable energy in the world with a presence in 28 markets in Europe, North America, South America and Asia-Pacific. Headquartered in Madrid and with main regional offices in Houston, São Paulo and Singapore, EDPR has a strong development pipeline with blue-chip assets and state-of-the-art renewable energy operational capability. These include onshore wind, distributed and utility-scale solar, offshore wind (via its 50/50 JV – OW) and technologies complementary to renewables such as batteries and electricity. green hydrogen. EDPR’s employee-centric policies have resulted in its recognition as Top Workplace 2022 in the United States, Top Employer 2022 in Europe (Spain, Italy, France, Romania, Portugal and Poland) and Brazil, as well as to its inclusion in the Bloomberg Gender Equality Index.

EDPR is a division of EDP (Euronext: EDP), a leader in energy transition with a focus on decarbonization. In addition to its strong presence in renewables (with EDPR and hydropower operations), EDP has an integrated presence in utilities in Portugal, Spain and Brazil, including power grids, customer solutions and power management. energy. EDP ​​- the main shareholder of EDPR – has been listed on the Dow Jones Sustainability Index for 14 consecutive years, and was recently named the index’s most sustainable electricity company.

About Connor, Clark & ​​Lunn Infrastructure

CC&L Infrastructure invests in middle-market infrastructure assets with attractive risk-return characteristics, long lives and the potential to generate stable cash flows. To date, CC&L Infrastructure has accumulated over $5 billion in diversified assets under management across a variety of geographies, sectors and asset types, with over 90 underlying facilities in over 30 individual investments . CC&L Infrastructure is part of Connor, Clark & ​​Lunn Financial Group Ltd., a multi-boutique asset management firm whose affiliates collectively manage approximately C$98 billion in assets. For more information, please visit

Blair Matocha EDP Renewables North America 281-414-7589 

Curious Kids: How was Halloween invented? | Kiowa County Press Sat, 29 Oct 2022 13:41:15 +0000

In 1952, kindergarten students leave school in Los Angeles, eager to celebrate Halloween.
Los Angeles Examiner/USC Libraries/Corbis via Getty Images

Linus Owens, Middlebury

curious children is a series for children of all ages. If you have a question you’d like an expert to answer, send it to

How was Halloween invented? – Tillman, 9, Asheville, North Carolina

“It’s alive!” Dr. Frankenstein wept as his creation came to life. But the creature had a life of its own, ultimately spiraling out of its creator’s control.

Just like Frankenstein’s monster, traditions are also alive, meaning they can change over time or be reinvented. Constructed from a hodgepodge of miscellaneous pieces, Halloween is one of those traditions that has been continually reinvented from its ancient origins as a a Celtic pagan ceremony. Yet beneath the superhero costumes and bags of candy still beats the heart of the original.

The Celts lived in what is now Ireland as early as 500 BC. They celebrated New Year’s Day on November 1, which they called Her hand. They believed that before the transition to the new year, the door between the worlds of the living and the dead opened. The souls of the recent dead, previously trapped on Earth, could now move on to the underworld. As they believed that the spirits came out after dark, this supernatural activity peaked the night before, October 31.

The Celts invented rituals to protect themselves during this turbulent time. They put on costumes and disguises to deceive the spirits. They lit bonfires and planted candles in carved turnips – the first pumpkin lanterns – to frighten mischievous spirits. If all else failed, they carried a pouch of treats to pay wayward spirits and send them away on the way to hell.

Sound familiar?

Although focused on the deadSamhain was finally for the living, who needed a lot of help transitioning into the new year. The winter was cold and dark. Food was scarce. Everyone came together for one last party to break bread, share stories and stand up against the dead, strengthening community bonds when they were needed most.

a collection of lit pumpkins
Ghouls, goblins and glowing pumpkins have long been synonymous with Halloween.
Erik Freeland/Corbis Historic via Getty Images

When the Catholics arrived in Ireland around the year 300, they opened another door between the worlds, sparking considerable conflict. They sought to convert the Celts by changing their pagan rituals into Christian festivals. They renamed November 1 “All Saints”, which today remains a celebration of Catholic saints.

But the locals have retained their old beliefs. They believed that the dead still roam the Earth. Thus, the living still dressed in costumes. This activity was still taking place the day before. It just got a new name to fit the Catholic calendar: “All Hallows Eve”, which is where we got the name Halloween.

Irish immigrants brought Halloween to America in the 1800s while escaping the great potato famine. At first, Irish Halloween celebrations were an oddity, viewed with suspicion by other Americans. As such, Halloween was not celebrated much in America at the time.

As the Irish integrated into American society, Halloween was again reimagined, this time as an all-American celebration. It has become a party mainly for children. Its religious overtones faded, supernatural saints and sinners being replaced by generic ghosts and goblins. Carved turnips gave way to pumpkins now emblematic of the party. Although trick-or-treating resembles ancient traditions like guising, where costumed children went door-to-door for gifts, it’s actually an american inventioncreated to inspire kids to move away from rowdy holiday pranks into healthier activities.

Halloween has become a tradition that many new immigrants embrace along their journey to Americanness and is increasingly be exported all over the worldlocals reinventing it in new ways to fit their own culture.

postcard of a witch and a black cat riding a broom
A Halloween postcard circa 1910.
Trolley Dodger/Corbis History via Getty Images

What’s so special about Halloween is that it turns the world upside down. The dead roam the Earth. Rules are made to be broken. And children wield a lot of power. They decide which costume to wear. They make demands of others by asking for candies. “Trick or Treat” is their war cry. They do things they would never get away with, but on Halloween they act like adults, trying to see how it goes.

Because Halloween allows kids more independence, it’s possible to mark life milestones with the first holiday. First Halloween. First Halloween without a parent. First Halloween that isn’t cool anymore. First Halloween as a parent.

Growing up used to mean getting out of Halloween. But today, young adults seem even more attached to Halloween than children.

What has changed: adults or Halloween? Both.

Caught between childhood and adulthood, today’s young adults find Halloween a perfect match for their struggles to find themselves and navigate their way through the world. Their participation once again reinvented Halloween, now bigger, more elaborate and more expensive. Yet in become an adult celebrationit’s come full circle to get back to its roots as a holiday celebrated mostly by adults.

Halloween is a living tradition. You wear a suit every year, but you’ll never wear the same one. You’ve changed since last year, and your costume reflects that. Halloween is no different. Every year it’s the same party, but it’s also something totally new. How are you already reinventing the Halloween of the future today?

Hello, curious little ones! Do you have a question you would like an expert to answer? Have an adult send your question to Please let us know your name, age and the city where you live.

And since curiosity has no age – adults, let us know your questions too. We cannot answer all questions, but we will do our best.

The conversation

Linus Owensassociate professor of sociology, Middlebury

This article is republished from The conversation under Creative Commons license. Read it original article.

Feud with tribes threatens re-election of Oklahoma governor | National Associated Press Thu, 20 Oct 2022 16:11:02 +0000

ADA, Okla. (AP) — Many of the 39 Native American tribes based in Oklahoma have played a role in state politics for decades, often behind the scenes. They became bigger and more outspoken gamblers when voters approved Las Vegas-style gambling in 2004. The budgets of several major tribes exploded along with casino revenues.

This year, in their strongest political action yet, they are exerting their considerable influence to oppose a second term for Republican Governor Kevin Stitt, himself a Cherokee citizen, who faces a tough re-election challenge after feuding with the tribes for most of his first term.

Weeks before the election, five of the state’s most powerful tribes have jointly endorsed Stitt’s Democratic opponent, Joy Hofmeister, the state’s public schools superintendent who has promised a more cooperative relationship with tribal nations. It is the first time in modern history that tribes, which often have unique or competing interests, have weighed in on a governor’s race in such a public way.

“I don’t know if I’ve ever seen (the tribes) more active than they are today,” said longtime Oklahoma GOP political consultant and pollster Pat McFerron. “I think they may have flown a little more under the radar before.”

The effect is a surprisingly tight race in a deep red state that is usually an afterthought in national politics. Reflecting concerns about Stitt’s vulnerability, the Republican Governors Association super PAC released an ad at the end of the campaign linking Hofmeister – which moved from the GOP to challenge Stitt as a Democrat – to President Joe Biden and rising gas prices.

Stitt’s feud with the tribes began during his first year in office when he unsuccessfully attempted to renegotiate the state gambling contract with the tribes. His administration then sought to overthrow a landmark United States Supreme Court ruling on tribal sovereignty in 2020 and again drew the ire of the tribes last year when he terminated hunting and fishing pacts between the state and the tribes.

“He seems to have enjoyed that fight, savors it and calls it a badge of honor,” McFerron said. “It’s almost like he’s laughing at them.”

Animosity between Stitt and the tribes spilled over into public opinion as the midterm elections approached. The tribal leaders have publicly attacked the governorpublic law enforcement meetings in Indian Country turned ugly and Stitt faced a black money attack ads attack.

“Any governor who pretends and attempts to dominate tribes is detrimental to tribes and to the state,” said Muscogee Nation Senior Chief David Hill.

Stitt, a multimillionaire mortgage company owner and political newcomer when he ran four years ago, has been plagued by scandals in his administration, including a special offer given to a barbecue restaurant owner which resulted in a criminal investigation, inappropriate spending of coronavirus relief funds intended for education and $2 million spent on malaria drugs during the COVID-19 pandemic that doctors had warned should not be used to treat the virus without further testing.

Stitt also touted new laws prohibiting abortion, even in cases of rape or incest, and targeting the medical treatment of transgender childrenboth of which have turned away some moderate and independent Republicans.

For his part, Stitt says he hopes that if elected to a second term, he will have improved relations with Native American tribes. Yet he insists that the Supreme Court’s decision expanding tribal sovereignty has been detrimental to the state.

“I told people that I will not go down in history as a governor who betrays my state,” Stitt said. “A lot of people want to portray this as an anti-Indian thing. It’s not. It’s a pro-Oklahoma thing.

In the run-up to the election, several nonprofit groups that focus on Native American voter registration and engagement say they’ve never seen this level of enthusiasm among Indian voters in politics in the past. statewide.

At a recent voter registration event at East Central University in Ada, Oklahoma, home of the Chickasaw Nation, a steady stream of students, many of whom were Native American, signed up to register to vote in the from an event hosted in part by Rock the Native Vote. It is a non-profit organization sponsored by the Indian Methodist Church of Oklahoma which was established in 2002. In the parking lot were cars with tribal license plates from the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Comanche, Kiowa tribes and Otoe-Missouria.

“Our goal is to register people and more importantly the Indigenous voters of our state,” said Devon Rain Potter, 19, a Chickasaw Nation citizen who helped run a registration kiosk. voters to go to the polls, there is a lot we can do. »

According to the most recent US Census data, Oklahoma has one of the highest percentages of Native American citizens with nearly 10% of the state’s population. Another 6.6% identify as belonging to two or more races. That’s easily enough to tip the scales in a hotly contested statewide race.

And it’s not just Oklahoma where Native voters are being wooed and invited to run. The Native Organizers Alliance targets Native voters in states across the country, including swing states with large Native American populations like Arizona, said Judith LeBlanc, the group’s executive director.

Even in deep-red Texas, which has seen an increase in the Native American population over the past 10 years, the group Democracy is Indigenous DFW drew dozens of people when meeting with candidates, including the Democratic candidate for office. of governor. Beto O’Rourke, who is challenging incumbent Republican Governor Greg Abbott. The nonpartisan group’s goal is to increase voter engagement with the Native American and Native population of Texas.

“We are running an unqualified voter registration campaign,” LeBlanc said. “I believe in Oklahoma we can make a difference.”

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Cooking at Home – Vegetarian Spaghetti Sauce | Kiowa County Press Wed, 05 Oct 2022 11:14:54 +0000

Vegetarian Spaghetti Sauce – USDA

Makes: 6 servings

Combine oregano and basil with fresh and canned vegetables to make your own spaghetti sauce, perfect for any pasta dish.


  • 2 tablespoons olive oil
  • 2 onions (medium, chopped)
  • 3 garlic cloves (chopped)
  • 1 1/4 cups zucchini (sliced)
  • 1 tbsp oregano (dried)
  • 1 tbsp basil (dried)
  • 1 can of tomato sauce (8 oz)
  • 1 can tomato paste (no salt added, 6 oz)
  • 2 tomatoes (medium, chopped)
  • 1 cup of water


  1. In a medium skillet, heat the oil. cook the onions, garlic and zucchini in the oil for 5 minutes over medium heat.
  2. Add the rest of the ingredients and simmer covered for 45 minutes. Serve over pasta.

Source: DASH Eating Plan: Lower Your Blood Pressure, US Department of Health and Human Services, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

Nutrition information

Portion: 3/4 cup (203g)



total calories


Total fat


Saturated fat







18 grams

Alimentary fiber


Total sugars

11 grams

Added sugars included




Vitamin D




The iron




What are tactical nuclear weapons? | Kiowa County Press Sun, 02 Oct 2022 15:29:33 +0000

This Russian short-range cruise missile, the Iskander-K, can carry nuclear warheads over several hundred kilometers. Photo by Russian Defense Ministry press service via AP

Nina Srinivasan Rathbun, USC Dornsife College of Letters, Arts and Sciences

Tactical nuclear weapons burst onto the international scene as Russian President Vladimir Putin, faced with battlefield casualties in eastern Ukraine, threatened that Russia “use all weapon systems at our disposal” if the territorial integrity of Russia is threatened. Putin called the war in Ukraine a existential battle against the Westwho, according to him, wants to weaken, divide and destroy Russia.

US President Joe Biden criticized Putin’s overt nuclear threats against Europe. Meanwhile, NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg minimized the threat, saying that Putin “knows very well that a nuclear war should never be fought and cannot be won”. This is not the first time Putin invoked nuclear weapons to try to deter NATO.

I am an international security specialist who has work on and wanted nuclear restraint, non-proliferation and expensive signage theory applied to international relations for two decades. Russia’s vast arsenal of tactical nuclear weapons, which are not governed by international treaties, and Putin’s doctrine of threatening their use have raised tensions, but tactical nuclear weapons are not just another type of weapon of battlefield.

Tactics in numbers

Tactical nuclear weapons, sometimes referred to as battlefield or non-strategic nuclear weapons, were designed for use on the battlefield – for example, to counter overwhelming conventional forces like large infantry and armor formations. They are smaller than strategic nuclear weapons like the warheads carried on intercontinental ballistic missiles.

While the experts disagreement over precise definitions tactical nukes, lower explosive yields, measured in kilotons, and shorter-range delivery vehicles are commonly identified features. Tactical nuclear weapons range in yield from fractions of 1 kiloton to around 50 kilotons, compared to strategic nuclear weapons, which have yields ranging from around 100 kilotons to over a megaton, although much more powerful warheads have been developed during the Cold War.

For reference, the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima was 15 kilotons, so some tactical nukes are capable of causing widespread destruction. The the biggest conventional bombthe mother of all bombs or MOAB, which the United States has abandoned has a yield of 0.011 kilotonnes.

Delivery systems for tactical nuclear weapons also tend to have shorter ranges, typically less than 310 miles (500 kilometers) compared to strategic nuclear weapons, which are typically designed to cross continents.

Because the explosive force of low-yield nuclear weapons is not much greater than that of increasingly powerful conventional weapons, the US military has reduced its reliance on them. Most of its remaining stock, about 150 B61 gravity bombsis deployed in Europe. The United Kingdom and France have completely eliminated their tactical stocks. Pakistan, China, India, Israel and North Korea all have several types of tactical nuclear weapons.

Russia has retained more tactical nuclear weapons, estimated at around 2,000and relied on them more in its nuclear strategy than the United States, primarily due to Russia’s less advanced conventional armaments and capabilities.

Russia’s tactical nuclear weapons can be deployed by ships, aircraft and ground forces. Most are deployed on air-to-surface missiles, short-range ballistic missiles, gravity bombs and depth charges launched by medium-range and tactical bombers, or naval anti-ship and anti-submarine torpedoes. marines. These missiles are mostly kept in reserve in central depots in Russia.

Russia has updated its delivery systems to be able to carry nuclear or conventional bombs. There is heightened concern about these dual-capability delivery systems, as Russia has used many of these short-range missile systems, particularly the Iskander-M, to bomb Ukraine.

The Russian Iskander-M mobile short-range ballistic missile can carry conventional or nuclear warheads. Russia used the missile with conventional warheads in the war in Ukraine.

Tactical nuclear weapons are significantly more destructive than their conventional counterparts, even at the same explosive energy. Nuclear explosions are more powerful by factors of 10 million to 100 million than chemical explosions, and leave deadly radioactive fallout that would contaminate air, soil, water and food supplies, similar to the disastrous collapse of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor in 1986. The interactive simulation site NUKEMAP by Alex Wellerstein depicts the multiple effects of nuclear explosions at various yields.

Can a nuclear weapon be tactical?

Unlike strategic nuclear weapons, tactical weapons are not focused on mutually assured destruction through overwhelming retaliation or umbrella nuclear deterrence to protect allies. While tactical nuclear weapons have not been included in arms control agreements, medium range weapons have been included in the old Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty (1987-2018), which reduced nuclear weapons in Europe.

The United States and Russia have reduced their total nuclear arsenals by approximately 19,000 and 35,000 respectively at the end of the cold war about 3,700 and 4,480 in January 2022. Russia’s reluctance to negotiate on its non-strategic nuclear weapons has hampered further nuclear arms control efforts.

The fundamental question is whether tactical nuclear weapons are more “usable” and could therefore potentially trigger full-scale nuclear war. Their development was part of an effort to overcome concerns that, with large-scale nuclear attacks widely considered unthinkable, strategic nuclear weapons were losing their value as a deterrent against war between superpowers. Nuclear powers would be more likely to use tactical nuclear weapons, in theory, and thus the weapons would enhance a nation’s nuclear deterrent.

Yet any use of tactical nuclear weapons would invoke defensive nuclear strategies. In fact, then-Secretary of Defense James Mattis, notably declared in 2018“I don’t think there is such a thing as a tactical nuke. Any use of a nuke at any time is a strategic game changer.”

This documentary explores how the risk of nuclear war has changed – and possibly increased – since the end of the Cold War.

The United States criticized the Russian nuclear strategy of escalate to defusein which tactical nuclear weapons could be used to deter an enlargement of the war to NATO.

Although there is disagreement among experts, Russian and American nuclear strategies focus on deterrence and therefore involve large-scale retaliatory nuclear attacks against the very first use of nuclear weapons. This means that Russia’s threat to use nuclear weapons as a deterrent to conventional war threatens an action which, according to nuclear warfare doctrine, would invite a retaliatory nuclear strike if directed against the United States. United or NATO.

Nuclear weapons and Ukraine

I believe that Russia’s use of tactical nuclear weapons in Ukraine would not achieve any military objective. This would contaminate the territory that Russia claims as part of its historical empire and possibly drift into Russia itself. This would increase the likelihood of direct NATO intervention and destroy Russia’s image in the world.

Putin aims to deter Ukraine’s continued successes in regaining territory as a preemptive annex regions in the east of the country after holding organized referendums. He could then declare that Russia would use nuclear weapons to defend the new territory as if the existence of the Russian state were threatened. But I believe that statement stretches Russia’s nuclear strategy beyond belief.

Putin explicitly asserted that his threat to use tactical nuclear weapons is not a bluff precisely because, from a strategic point of view, using them is not believable. In other words, whatever the reasonable strategy, the use of weapons is unthinkable and therefore threatening their use is by definition a bluff.

The conversation

Nina Srinivasan Rathbunprofessor of international relations, USC Dornsife College of Letters, Arts and Sciences

This article is republished from The conversation under Creative Commons license. Read it original article.